Categories
Psychology

section 1 You are working as a methodologist and have been tasked with designin

section 1 You are working as a methodologist and have been tasked with designing the methods section for a research study. You will do an in-depth dive into the design elements of eachpart of the methods section through your weekly assignments. It is important that you check instructor feedback weekly and make revisions before submitting the final project. It is also important to understand that you are not collecting data for this project. If you use your research question and hypothesis from Introduction to Experimental Psychology, you will have a complete research proposal that can serve as a fantastic template for the future.
Part 1: Use your research question and hypothesis from Introduction to Experimental Psychology. Report it in part 1 of the assignment. If you have not taken Introduction to Experimental Psychology yet, choose one of the three research topics below and report the research question and the hypothesis.
What is the relationship between color and mood?
What is the relationship of music and mood?
How does packaging affect consumer buying choices?
Part 2: You will complete the first section of your methodology paper here by writing about the research design you will be using for this study.
Research design – Here you will discuss your chosen methodology and justify why it is the best design for your study. Here is how you can break it down:Restate your research question and your hypothesis.
Based upon your review of the literature and/or your textbook, which research method would be the best choice?(e.g., experimental, quasi-experimental, correlational, survey, etc.)
Provide AT LEAST one citation that supports your research design choicE SECTION 2y ou will add the next three sections to your methodology that you started in SECTION 1. Be sure to be extremely specific in your descriptions. We want the readers to not only clearly understand what you will be doing, but set the study up to be replicated in the future. Please address each part of the outline below clearly using APA format.Setting – Where will you conduct your study? Will it be conducted online (e.g. survey research) or in-person? If it is in-person, will it be in a controlled environment (e.g. lab) or in a more natural setting (e.g. public park)?If this will be conducted in-person, give a specific location, even if it is hypothetical. Never make the location personal, like your home.
If the study will be conducted online, provide a website, like Survey Monkey, and include a URL. This may also be hypothetical.
Participants -What is your population and sample size? What type of sample is it? (e.g. random sample; purposive sample; convenience sample)
What are their demographics (age range, ethnicities, gender distribution, etc)? Why have you chosen them? What are the eligibility requirements for your study?
Measure(s) – What are the variables used in your study, and how will you measure those variables? (e.g. standardized scale, observation, interview). Go to the Keiser online library and access the database called PsycTests. From there, find an appropriate psychometric test to assess the behavior you are trying to measure in your study. You should include a description of the test. This may include relevant measures, observations, scales, questionnaires, observation guides, and document characteristics. If you can find reliability and validity of the instrument in the literature you should talk about that here as well.

Categories
English

On the journey we call, “life,” where do you see yourself and your relationship

On the journey we call, “life,” where do you see yourself and your relationship with others? Are there areas you want to improve and develop a greater awareness of your own patterns of behavior? Is it your self-esteem, your identity, your emotional expression, your communication style, or how you handle conflict? Select at least two-three areas that are most significant to your own growth and development, e.g., your identity development and its impact on personal and interpersonal relationships, or how you manage conflict and your communication style and their impact on your relationships, or how you manage your emotions and their role in developing your personality traits. You have total freedom to choose any of the areas discussed in your textbook. Make this assignment worthwhile to you.
STRUCTURE AND ORGANIZATION:
It would be best to include an introduction and to organize your paper in terms of past, present, and future to give it a logical order and a smooth flow.
INTRODUCTION:
Introduce your theme (s) and why you chose this topic. State clearly what your paper is going to be about. Make sure to highlight your topic sentence. You are expected to elaborate on this area (s) of your life throughout the paper.
PAST:
Reflect back on your life story and early childhood experiences. Include details that are only pertinent to your theme. When you introduce an idea, ask yourself: How does it relate to my topic sentence? What am I trying to show? This is a good place to introduce and show how have you dealt or been affected by the theme(s) in your life.
PRESENT:
Who are you now in relation to the issue(s) you introduced earlier. How are you dealing with this issue(s) now compared with how you dealt with it in the past? What are some of the current event(s) that are impacting the issue(s) presented? Are there any changes to how you view yourself now?
FUTURE:
What techniques or coping skills from “Becoming Aware” textbook that you might use to deal with the issue(s) that you presented earlier? What would you do differently now to enhance the quality of your life in regard to this issue(s)? What are your goals, hopes and visions of yourself? In other words, if you were to re-write your life story, what would you do differently? This part of your paper is about bringing a resolution to the issue (s) of your earlier concern (s).
An “A” paper must show a clear reflection of the terms used and successful knowledge of application. This paper is not an autobiography or a book/Chapter summary but rather a synthesis of the two.
Make sure to utilize at least terms from the text and underline
Include concepts of at least different theorists from your
Use examples from your own experiences and life events to supplement your
Submit a one page outline by the due date, discussing the vision of your paper with your For a sample outline, see Human Relations Position Paper in Becoming Aware (p. 158-159).
Write a reflective paper that is 4-5 pages double spaced. This paper is not an autobiography of your life or a book/chapter summary but rather about incorporating theories and concepts into one or two or more themes of your personal life.
You may submit many rough publishs before the due date until you secure an “A”.
SAMPLE PARAGRAPH: (MY IDENTITY IN THE FUTURE)In the areas of developing greater self-awareness of myself, I have always wondered about who I am and what my identity is. I have been intrigued by the Ideas of Eric Erickson’s eight stages of psychosocial development. I am convinced that who I will be today is largely determined by my social interaction with the outside world. I have often found myself changing and evolving as I meet new friends and acquire new experiences. In his description of the last stage of psychosocial development (Integrity vs. Despair), I have come to realize how important it is for me to live life to the fullest so I won’t have any regrets later on in life. This has become part of my personality and how I see the world.
The subject will be: Internal or External locus of control and its impact on my

Categories
Business

OverviewIn this assignment, you are to use the same corporation you selected for

OverviewIn this assignment, you are to use the same corporation you selected for the assignments in Weeks 3, 6 and 8. You will prepare an executive level PowerPoint presentation that could be delivered to the board of directors.
Use any or all of the following resources to conduct research on the corporation:
The corporation’s website.
Public filings from the Securities and Exchange Commission’s Filings & Forms page.
Strayer University’s online databases.
The Lexis Advance database.
Other credible sources. (The corporation’s annual report will often provide insights that other resources may not include.)
(Note: It is expected that you will also use your course textbook to complete the assignment.)
Instructions:Use the Capstone Template [PPTX] to develop an 8-12 slide PowerPoint presentation with speaker notes and appropriate graphics. This presentation should be prepared for the board of directors of the corporation and is based only on your assignments from Weeks 3, 6, and 8, and the following:
Create a SWOT analysis for the company to determine its major strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.
Based on the SWOT analysis, outline a strategy for the company to capitalize on its strengths and opportunities, and minimize its weaknesses and threats.
Discuss the various levels and types of strategies the firm may use to maximize its competitiveness and profitability.
Outline a communications plan the company could use to make the strategies you recommend above known to all stakeholders.
Assess efforts by the corporation to be a responsible (ethical) corporate citizen and the impact on the corporation’s bottom line. Provide specific examples to support your response.
Use three or more quality sources, including your textbook, to support your writing. Choose sources that are credible, relevant, and appropriate. Cite each source listed on your source page at least one time within your assignment. (Note: Wikipedia and similar websites do not qualify as academic resources)For help with research, writing, and citation, access the library or review library guides.
Follow the guidelines in the Strayer Writing Standards Slideshow and ensure all references are included on the sources list slide using SWS format.
For additional support, view the following LinkedIn Learning videos:Start Quickly with a Theme or Template.
Add, Remove, or Rearrange Slides.
Adding Images.
Speaker Notes.
Note: Do not submit a recording or video of your presentation.
This course requires the use of Strayer Writing Standards. For assistance and information, please refer to the Strayer Writing Standards link in the left-hand menu of your course. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
The specific course learning outcome associated with this assignment is as follows:
Develop a corporate presentation based on a SWOT analysis, strategies for maximizing competitiveness and profitability, a communications plan, and an assessment of efforts related to ethics.

Categories
Business

I. MENGEMAS Produk Ekspor 10 dari 10 poin A. Benar – Salah Nyatakan pernyataa

I. MENGEMAS Produk Ekspor
10 dari 10 poin
A. Benar – Salah
Nyatakan pernyataan di bawah ini benar atau salah dengan cara memilih huruf B kalau Benar dan huruf S kalau Salah
1. Variabel disain kemasan produk ekspor antara lain meliputi bahan, bentuk, warna, ukuran, tekstur.
*
1/1
BENAR
Salah
2. Dalam rangka membuat disain kemasan produk ekspor, eksportir harus dapat merancang kemasan yang akan digunakan, walaupun belum sempurna hasilnya.
*
1/1
BENAR
Salah
3. Palet merupakan salah satu jenis produk material handling yang dapat terbuat dari kayu maupun plastik, difungsikan sebagai alas dalam menata dan memindahkan hasil produksi. *
1/1
BENAR
Salah
4. Bersifat fleksibel, tidak dapat untuk produk cair, tidak dapat dipanaskan adalah karakteristik dari kemasan kaleng.
*
1/1
Benar
SALAH
5. Kemasan produk harus mempertimbangkan tampilan produk berkaitan dengan estetika dan kesan mewah.
*
1/1
BENAR
Salah
6. Penyesuaian jenis kemasan yang akan dibuat dengan spesifikasi alat dan perlengkapan yang dibutuhkan adalah salah satu tahap dalam menyiapkan alat dan perlengkapan kemasan produk.
*
1/1
BENAR
Salah
7. Marking adalah lapisan terluar untuk membungkus produk seperti dengan plastik, kertas, daun, besi atau dengan kulit sesuai dengan ketentuan dan kesepakatan yang dibuat.
*
1/1
Benar
SALAH
8. Salah satu pertimbangan memilih bahan kemasan produk ekspor adalahharus dapat melindungi produk dari kotoran dan kontaminasi sehingga produk tetap bersih.
*
1/1
BENAR
Salah
9. Kemasan dan produk ekspor tidak harus mempertimbangkan ukuran, bentuk dan bobot yang sesuai dengan norma atau standar yang ada.
*
1/1
Benar
SALAH

10. Kemasan kertas memiliki karakteristik berbentuk tetap, ringan, dapat dipanaskan, proses massal (bahan padat atau cair), tidak transparan, non biodegradable.
*
1/1
Benar
SALAH

Categories
Management

ScenarioYou are the hiring manager for a large tech company. You are in the proc

ScenarioYou are the hiring manager for a large tech company. You are in the process of recruiting new employees for a global expansion project and seeing a large percentage of females entering the tech industry over the past few years. Because of this, the CEO has asked you to put together a part of the new training guide on the rights and responsibilities relating to gender diversity in the workplace.
InstructionsDevelop a section of the training guide that:
Provides an introduction of gender diversity in the workforce.
Describes any existing legal protections for gender diversity in the workforce.
What do these policies cover, and what are their limitations?
Discusses the EEOC- Equal Employment Opportunity Commission – what is it?
What is its role in protecting gender diversity in the workforce?
Explains how a company’s global expansion might affect its gender diversity strategy with example.
Illustrates why effective diversity planning is so important to a global company and what role ethics play in planning and implementation.
Provide examples of strategies for conducting business and managing a diverse global workforce.
Be sure the 2-3-page training guide section displays proper grammar, spelling, punctuation, sentence structure, and credible sources cited in APA format.

Categories
English

i will atrach my first publish and make a final publish here is our proffessor sugg

i will atrach my first publish and make a final publish
here is our proffessor suggest.
For your name I think it should be two names not one long one. Add your last name to the page numbering.
The title should not be in bold.
Don’t number the solutions. You must think and write in paragraphs. What is gun insurance and how does it work and how would it prevent gun violence in some way? One sentence for each solution is not enough to explain them adequately.
The Works Cited page has citations with years or dates in parentheses. That is not MLA Format. Don’t follow APA format. Follow MLA Format.
Your introduction does not provide your audience with your stance or position on gun issue. The purpose of the thesis statement is to state your opinion on the problem and solution.
Paragraph 2 seems to be a counterargument. That should come later. First state the arguments for why gun violence or a lack of gun regulation is a problem. After you provide the arguments then provide the counterargument and it should be signaled or identified as such. At one point in the essay you mention proponents and opponents and it is not clear what your stance is. Your position must be very clear.
Paragraph three is not unified. It seems to be about death and then it is about fear then back to death. I see how they are related but the paragraph is confusing and not focused and unified in my opinion.
paragraph four needs evidence of minorities being killed but you do offer some later in the next paragraph. Be sure that you support arguments with evidence.
In your essay you talk about the rural and urban divide but how does that support your main idea?
The counterargument must be identified and the rebuttal should clearly be your opinion. Your stance should be obvious

Categories
Nursing

Multidisciplinary Conference 6.1 Multidisciplinary team meetings, conferences, o

Multidisciplinary Conference 6.1
Multidisciplinary team meetings, conferences, or rounds are mechanisms through which care providers from different specialties (physicians, nursing, case management, social work, quality, pharmacy, and other ancillary services) meet to communicate, coordinate patient care, make joint decisions, and manage responsibilities. These can occur either during bedside rounds or in a team meeting.
Initial Post
This time, prior to reviewing the bedside rounds, the team supervisor has come up with two scenarios that could happen to nurses outside of the hospital.
Instructions
Select the tabs to review each story. Then share your responses to the questions provided:
Accessible Interactive Instructions: Use the arrow keys to navigate between tabs. After selecting a tab, use the Tab key to move to the tab content.
While Eating at a Restaurant
While Driving to Work
While Eating at a RestaurantWhile eating at a restaurant close to your hospital with a friend, you notice a hospital employee drop her drink. The female appears in her 50s and is Hispanic. You approach to help her clean up the spill when you notice her face is drooping on the left side. You get focused and begin conducting FAST and ADPIE. You will ask if she is ok. You will ask her name. Introduce yourself and tell her that you can help her. You have your friend call for help (notify staff and call 911). You stay by the patient’s side; monitoring ABCs; reassuring and decreasing anxiety. When EMS arrives, the patient’s initial blood pressure is 200/110. The patient is placed on a cardiac monitor and EMS transports her to VHC.
Discuss the following:
What are her risk factors (modifiable and nonmodifiable)?
What do you think would be done upon her arrival at VHC?
Your friend, a new nursing student, then asks you, “What if the CT scan shows that it is an ischemic stroke?” What would you say?
What could be done for ischemic stroke if TPA is contraindicated?
While Driving to WorkYou are sitting at a red light in your car when you notice a pedestrian that is crossing the crosswalk in front of you, grabs the front of your car, and lowers herself to the ground. You jump out of the car to offer assistance. The white female, who appears to be in her 70s, seems confused and due to weakness of the left side is not able to stand back up.You implement FAST and ADPIE, as you should. You ask her if she is ok and ask her name. You then introduce yourself and tell her that you will help her. You have your cell phone and call for help (call 911). You stay by the patient’s side; monitoring ABCs; reassuring and decreasing anxiety.You just happen to have your lab kit with you and the patient’s initial blood pressure is 210/90. You notice the patient has a medical alert bracelet on that states she is on Coumadin for A. Fib. When EMS arrives, the patient is placed on a cardiac monitor and EMS transports her to VHC. She is able to ask for you to follow her to VHC and since you are done with class for the day, you do. When staff allows you back to visit her in the ED after the CT scan, the patient is alert, oriented to person, place, and time and grabs your hands with both of hers (equal grips), and thanks you profusely.After the patient’s permission (HIPAA); the ED physician shares that her CT scan was negative and that all her symptoms have resolved.Share your thoughts on what might have happened.

Categories
Economics

hi, i need help with my project my professor gave 35 on it send me some feedback

hi, i need help with my project my professor gave 35 on it send me some feedbacks. Attached is the project and the excel and the feedback please on a separate paper can you write down what you did for each task that you did. Thank you

Categories
Biology

Learning Objectives Define inheritance Define gene, allele and trait Describe th

Learning Objectives
Define inheritance
Define gene, allele and trait
Describe the role of DNA in protein synthesis (Central Dogma)
Define genotype and phenotype
Explain the relationship between genes, alleles and physical traits (phenotype)
Define dominant and recessive traits
Construct a Punnett square for a dominant and recessive trait for one generation
Explain how traits are inherited
Evaluate how population genetics is used to study the evolution of populations
Explain expectations about allele frequencies in a stable population (i.e., a population that is not experiencing evolutionary forces and that meets Hardy-Weinberg assumptions)
Compare and contrast the mechanisms of evolutionary forces (mutations, natural selection, gene flow, and genetic drift)
Discuss the influence an evolutionary force can have on allele frequencies within a population
DNA, Genes and Inheritance
How is it that offspring resemble their parents? You are probably aware that the answer somehow relates to DNA and genes. In this set of laboratory exercises, you will explore the transfer of traits from parents to offspring and see expressions of variations in genes.
The theory of chromosomal inheritance1 states that DNA nucleotides are the code for genes that determine all physical traits such as proteins like insulin or tissues like skin. DNA make up chromosomes. Genes are sequences of DNA that serve as the code for proteins. The code is first read and a strand of nucleotides complementary to DNA (called messenger RNA, or mRNA) is synthesized in the cell nucleus then the complementary code is read by ribosomes in the cell cytoplasm. The second reading sets the stage to produce proteins according to the nucleotide sequence in the gene. This sequence from genes to proteins is referred to as the Central Dogma of genetic code of life.
Central Dogma of Life Sciences
Gene (DNA)−→−−−−−−−−transcribed intoMessenger RNA code−→−−−−−−−translated intoAmino acids, proteinsGene (DNA)→transcribed intoMessenger RNA code→translated intoAmino acids, proteins
Genes are made up of DNA and vary in length from a few hundred DNA nucleotide bases to more than two million nucleotide bases. Humans have about 20,000 genes in the human genome.2
A gene is responsible for all parts of an organism. Products of a gene can be thought of as ‘traits.’ (Note: Traits can be a physical appearance at a microscopic or macroscopic level, or they can be behaviors.) Physical traits or behavioral traits are also known as the phenotype of the organism, whereas the term ‘genotype’ refers to genes that code for those traits.
Gene (Genotype)−→−−−−codes forTrait (Phenotype)Gene (Genotype)→codes forTrait (Phenotype)
For a living organism to exist, a gene was necessary to code for every macromolecule, protein, or enzyme that makes up that individual organism. A gene can be described as a segment of DNA that is “the fundamental physical and functional unit of heredity, which carries information from one generation to the next.” 3
Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is the genetic blueprint for living organisms. The information in the blueprint is a code made of four chemicals called bases. Bases are attached to a sugar molecule and a phosphate molecule and, together, form a nucleotide.4 Genetic material consists of strands of the nucleotides adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G). The complementary base pairs A=T and C≡G are bound by weak hydrogen bonds. Together, the strands form a structure known as a double helix. The two strands are bound together by hydrogen bonds that pair the nucleotide guanine (G) with cytosine (C) and the nucleotide adenine (A) with thymidine (T).
The helices are coiled tightly and form chromosomes. In humans, there are 23 paired chromosomes in somatic cells—cells that are not egg and sperm. The paired nature of these chromosomes are referred to as diploid. Sex chromosomes in somatic cells are paired in the form of XX or XY pairs, depending on whether the organism is female or male, respectively. In egg and sperm cells, however, the chromosomes—more correctly, DNA—undergo meiosis which “unpairs” the chromosomes, making them haploid (non-paired) strands of chromosomes.
Dominant and Recessive Traits
All living organisms inherit traits in the form of DNA in alleles in sex chromosomes of their parents’ DNA. Alleles are variations in the nucleotide sequence of a gene; genes are in the same location on the chromosome for the parents’ alleles. Offspring inherit genes and specific variations in each gene (alleles) from their parents. For example, Gregor Mendel studied the gene for the color of peas. One allele of the gene resulted in yellow peas while another allele resulted in green peas.
Some alleles dominate and a particular trait might be more common in a population due to a dominant allele. Examples of dominant genes in the human population are right-handedness, dark hair, and brown eyes. Other alleles are recessive and their trait is not visible unless both parents carry the recessive allele and the offspring inherits the recessive alleles from mother and father.
Let’s consider the Punnett square shown on the left. In the male, the genotype for the gene in question is heterozygous; that is, one of his alleles is dominant and the other is recessive. For the female, the genotype for the gene in question is homozygous; that is, both of her alleles are dominant. If a large number of offspring are born to these parents, none (0%) of the offspring in the first generation would have the physical features associated with the recessive trait (phenotype). Confirm that conclusion by studying the Punnett square.
In the case of two heterozygous parents (as in the Punnett square on the left), such as might occur in later generations and in descendants of these two parents, statistically speaking, 25% of the offspring would show the physical features associated with the recessive allele (see the Punnett square on the left). As with all statistical probabilities, the genotypes of the actual offspring will more closely resemble the expected percentages in the Punnett square as the number of births grow. In a realistic simulation as in this set of laboratory exercises, you will be able to run many trials and collect the data for several “births” of offspring, which will permit you to collect data to test hypotheses based on your expectations about the proportion of the alleles for the genotypes of the offspring.
Genes (and alleles) in the egg and sperm cells of parents essentially re-combine and sort randomly during meiosis and fertilization so that no two offspring are genetically identical (except for identical twins). Random assorting drives the statistical nature of the Punnett square. Consider a Punnett square of allele probabilities for offspring for as many as 20,000 different genes—which is the estimated number of genes in the human genome. The possible phenotypic outcomes would vary accordingly. Random sorting of genes between two parents as well as random sorting of genes in a whole population of a species lead to genetic and phenotypic diversity.
The reproductive success of parents or a given population of a species drives the opportunity to contribute to generations far into the future. Parents and populations that survive to reproduce in an environment where they live and who have offspring who repeat that cycle will contribute to future generations.
Population Genetics and the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
All females and males of the same species together make a population. The genes of populations typically do not vary much. However, changes in the genes in a population can occur through random mutation. A random mutation in the nucleotide sequence of gene in an egg or sperm cell could be the origins of a new allele in the population if the offspring survive and reproduce and pass on that new allele to future generations. A mutation in the nucleotide sequence of a gene is the only way a new allele can occur. Otherwise, parents simply pass on their unmutated allele—an allele common to all members of the entire, stable population—to their offspring.
Most populations of a given species have a stable set of genes and alleles. The primary origin of a new, unique allele, different from ones already in the population, is a random mutation. In fact, most random mutations in the nucleotide sequence of genes lead to death of the organism.
Scientists study how and why alleles vary within populations of organisms. The following characteristics apply to alleles and genotypes in stable populations:
Individuals of all genotypes within a given population have equal rates of survival and equal reproductive success. No selection process is at work in the stable population.
Changes in a nucleotide sequence of a gene (a mutation) do not create a new allele
Individuals do not migrate into or out of the population
The population is large enough that random changes in alleles are on a small scale and do not come to dominate within the population
Individuals within the population are not selective about their mates; they mate randomly5
These characteristics are central tenets of the Hardy-Weinberg formulation which is a mathematical representation of alleles (and traits) within a stable population of the same species. The allele frequency for a given gene within a stable population can be readily quantified using the Hardy-Weinberg equation (shown below).
p2+2pq+q2=1,p2+2pq+q2=1,
where pp represents the frequency of the dominant allele of a gene within a population, qq represents the frequency of the recessive allele within a population, and 2pq2pq represents the frequency of heterozygotic individuals within the population. The Hardy-Weinberg model relies on probability as the computational strategy to determine how prevalent an allele (or trait) is within a population. The proportional total of all frequencies of homozygotic genotypes (dominant and recessive, such as BB and bb) and all frequencies of heterozygotic genotypes (a mixture of dominant and recessive such as Bb) totals to 1.
To gain further insight into the Hardy-Weinberg equation, consider the Punnett square below where the allele frequencies of a gene are presented along with the genotype of the offspring.
Example: Consider two alleles of a gene, B and b, in a population where the frequency of B is p=0.7p=0.7 and the frequency of b is q=0.3q=0.3. Notice that the total frequency is p+q=1p+q=1, which means that there are only two different alleles for this gene in the population; they are all accounted for.
An assumption for a stable population is that mating is random. Mating probabilities can be easily computed using the probability formula: p2+2pq+q2=1p2+2pq+q2=1.
Probabilities:
Both parents have B alleles, which means a frequency of occurrence of BB genotype offspring in the population is
p×p=0.7×0.7=0.49p×p=0.7×0.7=0.49, or 49%49% frequency of BB genotype.
Both parents have b alleles, which means a frequency of occurrence of bb genotype offspring in the population is
q×q=0.3×0.3=0.09q×q=0.3×0.3=0.09, or 9%9% frequency of bb genotype.
One parent contributes a B allele and the other parent contributes a b allele, which means a frequency of occurrence of Bb genotype offspring is 2×p×q=2×0.7×0.3=0.422×p×q=2×0.7×0.3=0.42 or 42%42% frequency of Bb genotype.
Notice that the Hardy-Weinberg equation is satisfied, that is, p2+2pq+q2=0.49+0.42+0.09=1p2+2pq+q2=0.49+0.42+0.09=1.
Evolutionary Forces that Disrupt the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
To use the Hardy-Weinberg equation, it is necessary to assume that populations are stable and that allele frequency does not change over time. These assumptions are generally accurate for large populations of a given species; however, there are natural disruptions that occur which break these assumptions. Consider the scope of life on Earth if populations never changed. Would many of the species on Earth today exist if there were no changes to allele frequency within large populations? Biodiversity is completely due to natural selection, and natural selection is due to several specific processes that involve dynamic changes in the allele frequencies for a species.
Processes that contribute to natural selection—that is, changes in allele frequency within a population—include (1) random mutations in the nucleotide sequence of gene, (2) the tendency of some members of a population who happen to have a specific set of alleles to become physically separated from larger populations (gene flow or migration), and (3) the survival and reproductive success of a small sub-population whose gene pool does not reflect the same allelic composition of the larger population (genetic drift).
Consider the Punnett Square allele frequency values above for the Hardy-Weinberg allele frequencies in a special context in which, for example, a natural disaster causes the physical separation—such as by crevasse—of a smaller population having the allele bb from the larger population with dominant allele BB. The offspring of the smaller population will have a new set of alleles—all alleles would be bb and the formerly recessive allele would become dominant—more frequent—in this splinter population.
The model system discussed in the next section (below) consists of (simulated) bugs where the alleles (genotype) are BB and Bb and the phenotype is the expression of the color blue for the exoskeleton. A Punnett square can be constructed for a mating pair or for an entire population of mating pairs. The allele frequencies of the offspring across all mating pairs in the population vary according to the potential influence of processes that govern natural selection. If the population is stable, then the allele frequencies stay the same (Hardy-Weinberg assumptions hold). If natural selection (mutation, gene flow, or genetic drift) exert an influence, allele frequencies will change.
Orientation to the Model System
The simulation shown in the image below is representative of the genetics experiments you will conduct in this set of laboratory exercises. For one set of exercises, you select the alleles of the parents and will examine the alleles of offspring from mating pairs (“Baby Bugs”). In the other set of exercises, you will explore the impact of natural selection on many mating pairs (the population) over several generations (“Bug Pop”).
Two forms of data will be provided at the conclusion of each data run:
(1) A tally of the number of offspring for the three different allele possibilities and
(2) a corresponding display of offspring phenotypes that represent a visual counterpart of the allele distribution for the offspring.
The allele (gene) that will be of interest in this set of experiments is the rim (or outer ring) color of each bug. There are two alleles, blue and yellow. Our model bugs are shown below. Bugs can have a blue outer rim (i.e. blue-rimmed) or a yellow outer rim (i.e. yellow-rimmed). Rim color is determined by the genotype (allele) of the bug. The blue-rimmed trait is dominant (B allele).
Model Bug Key:
Phenotype (trait): blue-rimmed, Genotype: BB, alleles: B and B
Phenotype (trait): yellow-rimmed, Genotype: bb, alleles: b and b
Phenotype (trait): blue-rimmed, Genotype: Bb, alleles: B and b
In your second exercise several generations of bugs will be born and die.
Dead bugs of parent generations: Gray ghost-like rims and bodies
Procedure I Overview
When you conduct the “Baby Bugs” activities, you will be working with a blue allele that is dominant and noted by B and a yellow allele that is recessive and noted by b. This activity will simulate breeding between bugs. You will investigate the offspring that result from specific breeding pairs. Your work will include comparing probabilities calculated from your data and from Punnett Squares.
Procedure II Overview
When you conduct the “Bugs Pop” activities, you will explore what happens when evolutionary forces act on a population, and the dominance and recessive qualities of the alleles are not driving the survival and reproductive success of the parents and offspring. For this activity, you will observe potential composition changes to a small isolated breeding population of bugs over time. Your work will include comparing probabilities calculated from your data and from the Hardy-Weinberg equation.
Summary of Formulas Needed for Calculations
Calculating Average Values from Data
Example: Determine the average BB baby count from ten data run values: 3, 6, 4, 4, 3, 3, 5, 6, 4, 5.
BB average=3+6+4+4+3+3+5+6+4+510=4310=4.3BB average=3+6+4+4+3+3+5+6+4+510=4310=4.3
Calculating Probabilities (frequencies) and Percentages from Data
Probabilities and percentages can be determined from a single data point or from an average of multiple data runs. Average data values tend to be more representative of a population when there is variation between individual data runs.
Example: Determine the genotype probabilities (frequencies) and percentages from the following information:
data averages: BB average = 4.3, Bb average = 2.3, bb average = 3.4
total number of babies = 10.
For the BB genotype we have
BB probability=BB averagetotal number of babies=4.310=0.430BB probability=BB averagetotal number of babies=4.310=0.430
BB percentage=100%×BB probability=100%×0.430=43.0%.BB percentage=100%×BB probability=100%×0.430=43.0%.
For the Bb genotype we have
Bb probability=Bb averagetotal number of babies=2.310=0.230Bb probability=Bb averagetotal number of babies=2.310=0.230
Bb percentage=100%×Bb probability=100%×0.230=23.0%.Bb percentage=100%×Bb probability=100%×0.230=23.0%.
For the bb genotype we have
bb probability=bb averagetotal number of babies=3.410=0.340bb probability=bb averagetotal number of babies=3.410=0.340
bb percentage=100%×bb probability=100%×0.340=34.0%.bb percentage=100%×bb probability=100%×0.340=34.0%.
Example: Determine the phenotype probabilities and percentages from the results above.
For the blue phenotype we have
blue phenotype probability=BB probability+Bb probability=0.430+0.230=0.660blue phenotype probability=BB probability+Bb probability=0.430+0.230=0.660
blue phenotype percentage=100%×blue phenotype probability=100%×0.660=66.0%.blue phenotype percentage=100%×blue phenotype probability=100%×0.660=66.0%.
For the yellow phenotype we have
yellow phenotype probability=bb probability=0.340yellow phenotype probability=bb probability=0.340
yellow phenotype percentage=100%×yellow phenotype probability=100%×0.340=34.0%.yellow phenotype percentage=100%×yellow phenotype probability=100%×0.340=34.0%.
Determine Percentages from a Punnett Square
Example: Punnett Square for two heterozygous parents (both genotype Bb)
Punnett Square Example for Two Heterozygous Parents (both genotype Bb)
Both parents are genotype Bb (heterozygous).
Insert the parents alleles along the top and left side
Fill in the genotypes in the first row (use one allele from each parent)
Fill in the genotypes in the second row (use one allele from each parent)
What does the completed Punnett Square tell us? There are two equally valid interpretations.
Expected probabilities of a single birth between Bb parents.
25% chance (1/4) the child is genotype BB
25% chance (1/4) the child is genotype bb
50% chance (2/4) the child is genotype Bb
What does this mean in terms of the expected phenotype from a single birth between these parents?
BB and Bb genotypes share the same phenotype and so there is a 75% chance (3/4) of a child being born into that phenotype.
Likewise, there is a 25% chance (1/4) of a child being born into the phenotype associated with the bb genotype.
Expected probabilities of births in a population composed only of Bb parents.
on average 25% of births (1/4) are genotype BB
on average 25% of births (1/4) are genotype bb
on average 50% of births (2/4) are genotype Bb
What does this mean in terms of the expected births in a population composed only of Bb parents?
BB and Bb genotypes share the same phenotype and so, on average, 75% of births (3/4) are that phenotype.
Likewise, on average, 25% of births (1/4) belong to the phenotype associated with the bb genotype.
Using the Hardy-Weinberg Equation
The Hardy-Weinberg equation can be used to understand the proportions of alleles, genotypes, and phenotypes in a stable population.
Example: A small breeding population of bugs initially consists of 12 blue-rimmed bugs of genotype BB and 8 yellow-rimmed bugs (8 genotype bb). After several generations of births and deaths, the population is observed to consist of 17 blue-rimmed bugs (7 BB and 10 Bb) and 3 yellow-rimmed bugs (3 bb). Is this population consistent with the expectations of the Hardy-Weinberg model, that is, is this population stable?
Population Data
Initial Population Composition — 12 blue bugs of genotype BB and 8 yellow bugs (8 genotype bb)
Final Population Composition — 17 blue bugs (7 BB and 10 Bb) and 3 yellow bugs (3 bb)
Step 1: Determine pp and qq from the initial population composition data
p=number of B allelestotal number of alleles=2440=0.600p=number of B allelestotal number of alleles=2440=0.600
q=number of b allelestotal number of alleles=1640=0.400q=number of b allelestotal number of alleles=1640=0.400
Step 2: Use the Hardy-Weinberg equation to predict the future population composition
The Hardy-Weinberg equation is p2+2pq+q2=1p2+2pq+q2=1, where q2q2 is the proportion of yellow bugs and p2+2pqp2+2pq is the proportion of blue bugs. However, once we know the proportion of yellow bugs it is easier to the determine the blue bug proportion using 1−q21−q2.
proportion of yellow bugs=q2=(0.400)2=0.160⇒16.0%proportion of yellow bugs=q2=(0.400)2=0.160⇒16.0%
proportion of blue bugs=1−q2=1−0.160=0.840⇒84.0%proportion of blue bugs=1−q2=1−0.160=0.840⇒84.0%
Step 3: Determine the observed final population pheotype percentages from data
observed proportion of blue bugs=number of blue bugstotal number of bugs=1720=0.850⇒85.0%observed proportion of blue bugs=number of blue bugstotal number of bugs=1720=0.850⇒85.0%
observed proportion of yellow bugs=number of yellow bugstotal number of bugs=320=0.150⇒15.0%observed proportion of yellow bugs=number of yellow bugstotal number of bugs=320=0.150⇒15.0%
Step 4: Compare the Hardy-Weinberg predicted and observed final population phenotype percentages
Blue — predicted: 84.0%84.0%; observed: 85.0%85.0%
Yellow — predicted: 16.0%16.0%; observed: 15.0%15.0%
Conclusion: This population is consistent with the expectations of the Hardy-Weinberg model.
1. Klug, WS, Cummings, MR, Spencer, CA, and Palladino, MA, Concepts of Genetics, 10th edition (2012), page 5.
2. https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/primer/basics/gene.
3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK21962/.
4. What is DNA? Genetics Home Reference: Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions from U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institute of Health, https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/primer/basics/dna. Retrieved on 7/23/2019.
5. Klug, WS, Cummings, MR, Spencer, CA, and Palladino, MA, Concepts of Genetics, 10th edition (2012), page 702.

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Cyber Security

For your final assignment, you are to create your own style guide for three type

For your final assignment, you are to create your own style guide for three types of documents:
PowerPoint Presentation.
Memo.
Formal Letter.
The style guide should incorporate similarities that make you or your brand stand out and recognizable to anyone across all business correspondence.
Assignment Instructions
You have a new start-up company and want to create a style guide for business correspondence. In doing so, anyone in the Company can use the style guide for consistency.
Create a logo: Ensure you include dimensions for each type of correspondence.
Indicate the font type, size, and color that will be used for each type of correspondence.
Provide a sample of each type of correspondence for a visual representation:PowerPoint.
Memo.
Formal Letter.
Your submission should contain four files:
A write-up of the style guide: Write style instructions for creating PowerPoint presentations, memos, and formal letters.
An example of a PowerPoint presentation: It should contain at least three slides (Cover Page, Second Page, and Third Page) in which the content should be on the styles in useFor example, your cover page should have the logo and “Style Guide For “xxx” Company.
The second page should contain a header and three bullets indicating the font size, style, and colors that are being used.
The third page should contain a conclusion and at least three bullets indicating why using a style guide for PowerPoint presentation is important.
An example of a memo: It should contain the company logo, and the text in the memo should explain the styles used. For instance, indicate the position and size of the logo, clarify if the “To, From, Date, Subject” double spaced or single-spaced, and guide what font to apply.
An example of a formal letter: should contain the company logo, and the text in the letter should be an explanation of the styles that are being used. For example, indicate the position and size of the logo and the font that should be used for all formal letters.